The arts and music: Hcj Lecture Notes

Materialist view is that music is an organised sound.
All civilisations have musical rituals.
Musical instruments were banned from the Catholic Church before the enlightenment.
What is music as the thing in itself? The universe with nothing but music.

Nietzsche's 'The birth of tragedy in the spirt of music'

Kant's aesthetics is similar to Plato's. Aesthetics is the study of the emotional response to beauty. Plato would say the closest people to all the forms are artists. They apprise the beauty (Aesthetics). The most powerful aesthetic response is music, it sounds perfect. (Schopenhauer and Nietzsche)
But materialists would say our reaction to music is do with neurones.

Kant 1790 the French Revolution period.
Kant came up with a sensational breakthrough he explained the dual nature of perception. Everything we see is phenomena. Noumena is the thing-in-itself.

Hindu culture
The French Campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798–1801) was Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign in the Orient, to protect French trade interests, undermine Britain's access to India, and to establish scientific enterprise in the region.
Similar to Rousseau's people expected there would be noble savages in India however there were Hindus. Hindu culture share a language with Ancient Greece.
Indo European languages are spoken by almost three billion native speakers.
The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects. It has about 449 languages and dialects.
Hindu Sanskrit is similar to Greek.

-Schopenhauer was the first to study Indian culture. He might of even been a Hindu himself as his ideas were heavily influenced by Buddhism and popular Hindu culture.


In Schopenhauer's work 'The world is will and representation' the Will is similar to Hindu's Brahma. Brahma is knowing the world is a dream. Individual existence cannot exist on its own.
Schopenhauer shared the same views of science and metaphysics that Kant did. However the difference is that Schopenhauer thinks that there is only one noumena ( a thing in itself) being is a thing in itself.
Buddhists believe existence is pain. Schopenhauer understood this and said we need to deny our desires. When you experience desire this is the Will. The denial of desire and control of the Will is the only way to happiness.

Nietzsche said the reason for humankind existence is God. But 'God is dead' people have stop believing in God.
Kant is agnostic, we do not know if God exists but we do know that existence does. If existence has happened then maybe God.

Nietzsche was against Schopenhauer's Buddhism.
Nietzsche said you shouldn't deny your desires you should overcome them. Intoxication is the only way to overcome your desire/will. Art is intoxication and music is the most healthy intoxication of coming desires. (Classical music not modern day 4 bar music) if you can't deny your desires overcome them in the most passionate way.

- Pythagoras- music happens in mathematical ratio. Music is mathematics in it's purest form.

-Nietzsche eventually fell out with Wagner over the redemptive theme.

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