The Clockwork Universe, the time of enlightenment.

Aristotelian and Scholastic viewed the world in terms of its perfections. Ptolemy believed the earth as at the centre of the universe and that the Sun is moving and not the Earth. All readings from the Bible were literal. 
Dogma- People were forced to read the Bible and believe it word for word.

Copernicus 1473-1543
Copernicus was a Renaissance philosopher. His hypothesis was the heliocentric modal. As this was a hypothesis he was saying he could be wrong, no other philosopher had done this before. The heliocentric theory states that the sun was the center of the universe. Copernicus had believed that 'The falling bodies' would fall in a different place on earth to the place they had started. This was later solved my Galileo's experiment of the Leaning Tower of Pisa.

Francis Bacon 1561-1626
Bacon was a scientific philosopher; he turned violently against the scholastic and Aristotelian approach. He argued that their previous claims were barren and circular and that the biggest mistake made was mixing science and religion.
Religion is something left over from the infancy of our intelligence, it will fade away as we adopt reason and science as our guidelines.
He said science must be dynamic and you must admit you don't know. The world being described as a clockwork explains how complicated it is and we will only understand it through reason. Bacon's approach was empirical. Our knowledge of the Earth should be cumulative, we should always be adding to it.  His most famous book ' The Advancement of Knowledge' 1605 he always wrote The Organon which was an explanation code to follow how you get knowledge, this was totally modern. You precede knowledge through induction, theory and experiment.
Francis Bacon was interested with the idea of hot and cold bodies and their characteristics. He thought snow would preserve meat, as an experiment he tested this on himself and died from pneumonia.

Galileo 1564-1642
Kepler influenced Galileo an Italian mathematician. Galileo perfected a dutch invention called the Telescope. Up to this point people had looked at the sky with the naked eye. Galileo could see the truth and others then could giving us a presumptive authority. This conflicted with the Bible and what Aristotle had previously believed that everything was perfect. Galileo believed that what was real was what was measurable. His opponents refused to look through the telescope and see the 'real' perception.
Galileo thought that scripture only taught us how to go to Heaven and not how Heavens go. He stated the only way to understand it all is through mathematics.
He was brought before Inquisition, where his opponents bought out instruments of torture and asked him to change his mind. Galileo did change his mind and was remained under house arrest. However his work was appreciated years later.

Locke 1632-1704
Locke believed we gained knowledge through experience, agreeing with Bacon. He describes our minds as a blank state and our reason is from God, therefore we have no perception problem. Locke was against Hobbes' theory that we had a perception problem.

Isaac Newton 1642- 1727
Newtons the 'Principa,' published in 1687, was his most famous work. The book was a demonstration of the Copernicus' hypothesis proposed by Kepler. Newton told people about gravity but said he doesn't know why, he is only showing you, which supported what Francis Bacon had said.

After Newton, Aristotle's physics was discredited, this was the beginning of the Enlightenment until most of it was destroyed by Einstein in the 20th Century. The Enlightenment was a time when individuals were able to work out what is right and wrong. Before these times people would had thought of it being too complicated and let the philosophers work it out. Reason is the way to gain knowledge.
"A man may imagine things that are false, but he can only understand things that are true, for if the things be false, the apprehension of them is not understanding." Issac Newton.

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