Here a few of my notes taken from the lecture yesterday. Although I do always say philosophy is a tricky one to get your head around, these three philosophers seem to be the most complex and confusing. Kant, Hegel and Schopenhauer were German pholophers. The German Idealists were against Hume and his empiricist approach. They wanted to recover metaphysics.
A paradigm is a way of connected thinking across all fields of thinking. After the enlightenment and Romanticism there was a paradigm shift.
Kant 1724-1804 Kant was a German philosopher who moved philosophy beyond the debate of rationalism and empirism. Kant said the most scientifical observation is metaphysics. How can we have science if Hume is against causation? Hume says things happen through coincidence and we cannot be sure it will happen again in the future. Kant opposed this and said if this is true then science is impossible.
Kant recovered metaphysics. What Hume called 'matter of fact' Kant called it synthetic analytical synthesis A-priori according to Hume is 'true my definition' a circle isn't always round- that's true.
Kants theory of a-priori is more permissive. A-priori it can be figured out. Arithmetic is synthetic a priori Geometry is analytic a priori You need synthetic a priori to prove that space and time exist. It has to be a matter of your own reasoning. When it comes to the issues of religion Kant said God may or may not exist.
Copernicus revolution Kant was also against Descartes. Phenomena was a metal reasoning Noumena is the unperceived object. All objects are noumena. A lot of Art is trying to show the noumena.
Hegel 1770-1831 Hegel was a historian.
He believes history has a purpose and that God is working through history, marching towards euphoria. He believed change is the only constant. The universal soul is the giest. The universe must have a giest to persist. The purpose of the giest is to know itself. He believed history has a form known as the thesis anti-thesis and synthesis. For example when looking at civilisation Greece was the thesis at the start, with European civilisation.The middle ages was the anti thesis
The renaissance is the the synthesis. After the conflict was the reformation. Hegel believed this cycle is to achieve a perfect state something that nearest reflects the Garden Of Eden. This is also known as the 'organic state' Thesis-anti thesis- conflict- synthesis
Schopenhauer The noumena of the universe as the thing in itself, this is known as the Will. The only noumena is the universe. Everything that exists has a will. The being Is inescapable. Schopenhauer was an early pessimist.